1                  solid waste management

 

1.1                                    Introduction

All cities in India are faced with environmental degradation and visual pollution from increasing generation of solid wastes and its inadequate management due to population growth and rapid urbanization. Shimla is not different from other cities in this aspect. With increasing urbanization and influx of tourists, solid waste management is daunting task.

 

1.2                                    Policy, Legal and Institutional Framework

Shimla Municipal Corporation is responsible for collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of solid waste in SMC limits, while SADA is responsible for SWM services in their respective special areas. However, SMC is providing collection and transportation services is few SADA areas.

SMC has introduced bylaws on Door-to-Door Garbage collection vide notification UD-A(3)-2/2006, dated August 2006 following the directions  issued by Hon. High Court. The Municipal Corporation Shimla Door to Door Garbage Collection Bylaws, 2006 prohibits littering and promotes participation of community and private sector in collection of waste.  

1.3                                    Generation

The average generation in Shimla Planning Area is estimated to be 87 MT per day @ average of 0.43 kg per day[1] per capita generation. The generation is characterized by high level of seasonal variations with 30% increase in peak season. The solid waste projections for planning horizon are presented in Table 11.1 and Figure 11.1. The characterization of solid waste from Shimla indicates that 65% of the waste is organic waste. Balance constitute paper, metals, glass, textiles, plastics and polythene and other debris.

Table  STYLEREF 1 \s 1. SEQ Table \* ARABIC \s 1 1  Solid waste generation and projection

S.N

Year

Population

Solid Waste Generation

(MT per day)

1

2001

174789

75

2

2006

203091

87

3

2011

235970

101

4

2016

274185

118

5

2021

318560

137

 

1.4                                    Collection

The Solid Waste collection is about 35-40 MT/day amounting to collection efficiency of about 40 to 46%. The collection of solid waste is primarily through community bin system comprising of 142 dumper containers and 209 concrete dustbins. Frequency of clearing of bin varies from daily to alternate day to twice in week depending on area. Bin: Population ratio varies between 1:132 and 1: 898.

Collection is also carried out through street sweeping. SMC area has 142 km length of road. Street sweeping in SMC is carried out through 405 sanitation workers of SMC. The road length covered per sweeper is about 350m as against the national average of 1-1.5 km. The collection is carried out using Suphli and baskets and transportation of street sweepings to nearest community bin is carried out using nylon bags. Sweeping is also carried out through private sweepers on Sundays and holidays in the heart of the city i.e. Mall Road, Lower Bazaar, Sabji Mandi, Lakkar Bazaar etc.

Recently Shimla Municipal Corporation has introduced Door-to-door collection (D2D) scheme under HP Municipal Corporation Act 1994 in selected areas through Private Sector Participation. Shimla Municipal Corporation has introduced a bylaw on D2D collection in August 2006. About 30-35% population within SMC is covered under D2D scheme. SMC has notified the tariff for D2D solid waste collection for contracted areas and is envisaging to select D2D Operators for remaining based on tariff based bidding process.

1.5                                    Transportation

Transportation of waste is carried out mainly through dumper placers and tipper trucks. About 14 vehicles are utilized for transportation of waste, which includes 10 dumper placers, 3 tippers and 1 truck. The average distance to be traveled to disposal site by transport vehicles is 14 km. Of the 14 vehicles available with SMC for transportation, 4 vehicles are more than 10 years old and 6 vehicles are more than 8 years old. Transportation of waste is done in single shift with dumper placer making 6-8 trips and tipper only making 1 trip in a shift. The ratio of number of dumper containers to number of dumper placers is 14. Only 25% of the dumper containers are lifted in day. The cost of transportation is estimated to be Rs. 250 /T excluding manpower cost.

 

1.6                                    Processing and Treatment

SMC has commissioned a solid waste processing and treatment plant of 100 Mt/day capacity at the cost 3.72 Cr in 2001 at Darni-ka-Bagicha in Lalpani. The treatment is based on Excel aerobic composting technology. The plant receives about 912 MT per month wastes during normal season and 1266 MT per month wastes during peak season amounting to 30-45 Mt/day. The amount of compost produced is about 15-20 MT per month.

 

SMC has established common biomedical waste treatment facility comprising of incinerator for treatment and disposal of biomedical wastes. In absence of autoclave shredder and burial pits, the facility is not able to provide a complete treatment and disposal for all types of biomedical wastes.

 

1.7                                    Disposal

The disposal is carried out through open landfilling along the hill slopes near the processing and treatment plant.  About 1200 sq.m. area is being used for landfilling. About 170-300 MT per month of inert material from processing plant (which amounts to 18%-22% of total waste received) is disposed at landfill site. The construction wastes and debris which is collected separately and disposed off at the landfill site is used as cover material.

 

1.8                                    Organization Structure

The department of solid waste management is under the administrative control of health officer who is assisted by chief sanitary inspector, program coordinator, sanitary inspectors, sanitary jamadars and safai karamcharis. Total 592 employees including permanent, daily wagers and contract workers are engaged in providing SWM services. Shimla is divided into six sanitary wards and the market area for providing SWM services. Each sanitary ward is divided into beats supervised by sanitary inspectors.

 

1.9                                    Financials

SMC spends about Rs. 533 Lakhs per annum on solid waste management, which constitutes about 27% of total municipal annual budget. About 82% of expenditure is on manpower and balance 18% is on fuel, vehicle maintenance, materials and others. While the major cost component (77%) is sweeping operation, the transportation contributes to 12% cost. Presently no costs are incurred towards processing and disposal. The cost of solid waste management is estimated to be Rs. 2800 per MT. The capital cost towards SWM services is met from current revenues and borrowings.

 

1.10                                Role of Private Sector

Presently, role of private sector is limited to provision of D2D services in limited areas and construction, operation and maintenance of processing and treatment plant.

 


 

1.11                                Issues and Concerns

 

1.11.1        Collection

Ø         Due to hilly terrain of Shimla, there are topographic constraints in D2D collection and transportation

Ø         Collection efficiency is very poor. Balance waste remains uncollected and disposed indiscriminately on the valley slopes

Ø         Unwillingness of citizen and commercial establishments to participate in D2D collection services. Presently collection services are provided in morning hours which are not consistent with checkout timings of hotels and office working hours

Ø         Presently about 592 employees are involved in provision of SWM services with about 350 m road length per sweeper, the sweeping operations is overstaffed. In view of expansion of D2D services on PPP format to entire town and merger of 3 SADA areas in SMC area, there is need for redeployment of the employees involved in the sweeping operations

 

1.11.2       Transportation

Ø         The existing transportation infrastructure and resources are inadequate resulting in lower collection efficiency

Ø         The useful life of more than 70% of existing transportation vehicle is over

Ø         With shifting of treatment and disposal facility outside the town, the lead distance shall increase by 13 km and therefore number trips per vehicle will reduce 

 

1.11.3       Treatment

Ø         Existing location of plant is within 1km from residential area. High Court ruling in Public Interest Litigation filed against the location and operation of existing plant has order to curb the odour emissions from the existing plant or shift the plant outside the town. SMC has identified an alternate site at Banahatti for locating an integrated facility comprising of processing, treatment and disposal facility

Ø         Presently only 30% capacity of the treatment plant is utilized

Ø         The processing and treatment plant was structured with revenue model based on sale of compost. The quality of compost produced in the plant is not in conformation with the standards, thus restricting demand and sale of the compost and financial viability of the project with regards to not only full cost recovery but also operational cost

Ø         Plant is based on aerobic composting technology. It is suggested that the suitability of aerobic composting technology for processing and treatment should be assessed and suitable modifications and/or alternate technology if any required should be selected while shifting the plant to new location

Ø         The tenure of the agreement with private sector developer of existing processing and treatment plant is till December 2006. On expiry of the agreement, existing plant shall be returned to SMC and SMC shall be responsible for processing, treatment and disposal of waste. The technical and financial capability of the SMC is limited to operate the plant during the phasing period till the alternate facility is commissioned

 

1.11.4       Disposal

Ø         Open landfilling and noncompliance with MSW Rules

Ø         Location of landfill site within 1km distance of residential area

Ø         Inadequate landfill site

 

1.11.5       Biomedical Treatment

Ø         Existing facility is not able to provide treatment and disposal for all types of biomedical wastes in conformation with Biomedical (Handling and Management) Rules

 

1.11.6       Financials

Ø         Currently, the cost of solid waste management is about Rs. 2800 per tones of waste, which is very high compared to national average (Rs. 1000-1300 per MT in plains)

 


 

1.12                                Vision and Goals

 

Text Box: “Clean & Green Shimla through Environmentally Sustainable Waste Management Practice”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Indicator

2006

2011

2016

2021

Total Waste Generated per day

87

101

118

137

D2D Services Provided

30%

80%

100%

100%

% of Waste Collected

40%

80%

100%

100%

% of Waste Processed, Treated and Disposed

40%

80%

100%

100%

Trips/Vehicle

6

10*

10

10

Dumper Container/Dumper Placer

14.2

10.0

10.0

10.0

            *in view of alternate site for integrated facility at Banahatti, increasing the lead distance by 13 km and extending the operations in two shifts

 

1.13                                Strategy and Identification of Interventions

 

1.13.1       Approach for Strategy

Strategy for Solid Waste Management is developed based on seven directives endorsed by the Municipal Solid Waste (Handling and Management) Rules 2000. These are as follows:

(1)               Prohibit littering on the streets by ensuring storage of waste at source in two bins; one for biodegradable waste and another for recyclable material

(2)               Primary collection of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste from the doorstep, (including slums and squatter areas) at pre-informed timings on a day-to-day basis using containerized tricycle/handcarts/pick up vans

(3)               Street sweeping covering all the residential and commercial areas on all the days of the year irrespective of Sundays and public holidays

(4)               Abolition of open waste storage depots and provision of covered containers or closed body waste storage depots

(5)               Transportation of waste in covered vehicles on a day to day basis

(6)               Treatment of biodegradable waste using composting or waste to energy technologies meeting the standards laid down

(7)               Minimize the waste going to the land fill and dispose of only rejects from the treatment plants and inert material at the landfills as per the standards laid down in the rules

 

1.                         Planning

§      Preparation of Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan for Shimla Planning Area

 

2.                        Collection

§      Expansion of D2D collection to entire Shimla Planning Area and improvement in collection efficiency. There is need to institutionalize and integrate rag pickers in the primary collection

§      Segregation of waste at collection point to reduce transportation requirement. SMC should encourage citizen participation in source segregation through awareness campaigns or introduction of penalty fees

§      Improving efficiency of street sweeping operations and secondary collection

 

3.                        Transport

§      Augmentation of transportation infrastructure to ensure better secondary collection and transportation

 

4.                        Treatment and Disposal

§      Capacity building of SMC to operate existing facility during transition period

§      Technology assessment for processing and treatment of solid waste

§      Identification of alternate site for integrated municipal solid waste processing, treatment and disposal facility in view of High Court Orders

§      Detailed feasibility study for development of integrated solid waste management facility at identified location

§      Shifting/Phasing of existing treatment facility and remediation of existing disposal site

§      Design, construction and operation of integrated solid waste management facility including processing and treatment plant and sanitary landfill site in compliance with MSW rules

 

5.                        Biomedical Treatment Facility

§      Upgradation of existing biomedical treatment facility

 

1.13.2      Scope and Options of Private Sector Participation

Role of private sector in SWM is growing in India. Surat, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Chennai are successful examples of PPP participation in India. The outsourcing to private sector should be encouraged in order to improve the financial viability.  The scope of private sector participation in various activities related to solid waste management is presented in Table 11.2 and 11.3.

Table  STYLEREF 1 \s 1. SEQ Table \* ARABIC \s 1 2  PPP Options in Solid Waste Management

S.N

Activity

SMC

Private Sector

Implementation

Options

1

D2D Collection

 

X

Service Contract

2

Street Sweeping

X

 

Service Contract

3

Construction and Maintenance of Community Bins

 

X

BOT and its variance/Separate EPC and O&M Contract

4

Transportation of waste to integrated facility

X

X

Concession/O&M Contract

5

Design, development, operation and maintenance of processing and treatment plant for solid waste including special wastes like vegetable market waste, abattoir waste

 

X

BOT and its variance/ Separate EPC and O&M Contract

6

Design, development, operation and maintenance of sanitary landfill site

 

X

BOT and its variance/DBO/Separate EPC and O&M Contract

 

 

Table  STYLEREF 1 \s 1. SEQ Table \* ARABIC \s 1 3   Examples of PPP in Solid Waste Management in India

S.N

Services on PPP

Examples

1

D2D Collection

Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Jaipur, North Dumdum, New

Barrackpore (West Bengal), Gandhinagar, Vejalpur (Gujarat)

 

2

Street Sweeping

Surat, Hyderabad

3

Storage and Transportation

Surat, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Delhi

4

Integrated Treatment and Disposal

Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata,

Chennai, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad

 

 

5

Integrated primary collection, street sweeping, storage and transportation

Chennai


 

1.14                                Sectoral Investment Plan

(in Rs. Lakhs)

S.N

Project

Project

Cost[2]

Investment Schedule

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

1

D2D Collection

200

100

100

-

-

-

-

2

Street Sweeping

200

100

-

-

-

-

100

3

Storage and Transportation

675

100

300

-

-

-

275

4

Integrated Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility

1500

300

700

500

-

-

-

5

Upgradation of Biomedical Facility

50

50

-

-

-

-

-

6

Technical Studies

50

50

-

-

-

-

-

7

Transaction Advisory

100

50

50

 

 

 

 

8

Capacity Building (Community Awareness)

100

20

20

20

20

10

10

9

Training

100

20

20

20

20

10

10

 

Total

2975

790

1190

540

40

20

395

 


 

1.15                                  Project Information Sheets

 

Project Title: Expansion of Door-to-Door Collection of Waste

 

Project Description: Door-to-door collection is proposed to be implemented for entire residential and commercial areas in Shimla Municipal Corporation and SADA. . This would include

-         Delineation of zones for D2D services

-         Designing and procurement of equipments for waste collection and conveyance suitable for hilly areas

-         Procurement of containerized carts and collection bins

 

Project Benefits:

-         Improvement in collection efficiency

-         The vehicular access problems due to terrain constraint can be eliminated

-         Facilitates segregation of the waste at source

-         Cleanliness can be achieved easily

 

Project Cost :     Rs. 200 Lakhs (Capital cost towards tools & equipments)

 

Revenue Sources : User charges for Door-to-Door collection. Shimla Municipal Corporation shall notify the tariff notification for door-to-door collection based on bidding

 

Implementation Structure: The door-to-door collection system shall be implemented on service contract (with/without equipment of contractors) through Private Sector Participation (may include private operators, Resident Welfare Association, NGOs, CBOs)

 

Financing Mechanism : Project cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through grant under JNNURM; O&M Cost to be recovered by private sector operator from user charges

Time Frame:  Project Development : 2007 ; Implementation : March 2008

 

Institutional Responsibility: SMC and Private Operator

-         SMC to undertake procurement process for selection of private sector operator. Private sector operator to organize rag pickers, if necessary for primary collection

-         SMC to re-deploy the municipal staff

-         SMC to carry out awareness programme and campaigns by involving NGO’s, Citizens’ Committees, and HP Environment and Pollution Control Board

 

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:

-         SMC to undertake the project development process for procurement of private sector operator

 

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

-         Notification on prohibition of littering

-         Need to create awareness through awareness generation and commitment campaign and ensure effective implementation and long term sustenance of the initiative

-         Need to promote segregation of waste at source

 

Additional Studies:

Assessment of ward-wise solid waste generation and collection is required for preparation of Project Information Memorandum and Bid document. SMC has appointed National Productivity Council for undertaking detailed feasibility study of Solid Waste Management

 

 


 

 

Project Title: Improvement in Secondary Collection (Street Sweeping)

 

Project Description: Improvement in secondary collection is proposed to be implemented in entire area of Shimla Municipal Corporation and SADA.  This would include

-         Delineation of zones/areas for sweeping operation

-         Designing and procurement of equipments for waste collection and conveyance suitable for hilly areas

-         Procurement of containerized carts and collection bins

-         Replacement of concrete collection bins with containers to avoid manual handling and augmentation of dumper containers

 

Project Benefits:

-         Improve the operational efficiency

-         Cleanliness can be achieved easily

 

Project Cost : Rs. 200 Lakhs( Capital cost towards tools & equipments)

 

Revenue Sources : Nil;

 

Implementation Structure : Initially sweeping operation shall continue to be responsibility of SMC with involvement of private contractor limited to existing level (due to overstaffing) and may gradually induct the service contractor for street sweeping operations

 

Financing Mechanism : Project cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through grant under JNNURM; O&M Cost to be recovered from property tax

 

Time Frame:  Project Development : 2007; Implementation : March 2008

 

Institutional Responsibility: SMC

-         SMC to re-deploy redundant municipal staff to the newly merged areas of SMC

 

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:

 

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

 

Additional Studies:

 

 


 

 

Project Title: Improvement in Transportation of Waste to Treatment and/or Disposal Facility

 

Project Description: The proposed project for improvement in transportation of waste in Shimla Planning Area includes optimization, improvement and modernization of fleet. This would include

-         Improving vehicle productivity by extending waste collection to two shifts which is presently operated in single shift

-         Replacement and strengthening of vehicle fleet through procurement of dumper placers

-         Identification and selection of workshop for long term service contract for maintenance of fleet

 

Project Benefits:

-         Improve the collection efficiency

-         Efficient transportation of waste

 

Project Cost : Rs. 675 Lakhs

 

Revenue Sources : Nil ; Tipping Fees is  potential revenue source for private operator 

 

Implementation Structure : The transportation system shall be implemented by SMC on Service Contract/O&M Contract (transportation of waste including maintenance of fleet) through Private Operator on pilot scale to start with and then replicate the same to other areas

 

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through grant under JNNURM (It is expected that capital funding by SMC through grant would reduce the tipping fees substantially) ; O&M Cost to be recovered through property tax

 

Time Frame:  Project Development 2007; Implementation : March 2008

 

Institutional Responsibility:

-         Shimla Municipal Corporation and Private Operator

 

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:

-         SMC to undertake the project development process for procurement of private sector operator /workshop service provider

 

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

 

Additional Studies:

Optimization of transportation routes and time schedule. SMC has appointed National Productivity Council for undertaking detailed feasibility study of Solid Waste Management

 

 

 


 

 

Project Title: Integrated Waste Processing, Treatment and Disposal Facility

 

Project Description: The integrated processing, treatment and disposal facility is proposed to be implemented for Shimla Planning Area. This would include

-         Remediation/shifting of existing processing and treatment facility

-         Remediation of existing disposal site

-         Design, construction, operation and maintenance of new integrated processing, treatment and disposal facility

 

Project Benefits:

-         Improvement in quality of environment

-         Compliance of Municipal Solid Waste (Handling and Regulation) Rules and High Court Orders

 

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 1000 Lakhs

 

Revenue Sources : Sale of compost (if composting is selected as preferred technology); Tipping fees is also a potential revenue source for private operator

 

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by SMC through Private Sector Participation. The PSP options available could be BOT and its variance (with capital subsidy provided by SMC) and Separate EPC and O&M contract

 

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through grant under JNNURM and/or Private Operator (the capital subsidy by SMC shall reduce the tipping fee considerably); O&M Cost to be recovered by private operator from tipping fees payable by SMC to private operator from property tax revenue

 

Time Frame:  Project Development : 2007; Implementation : March 2008

 

Institutional Responsibility: SMC and Private Operator

-         SMC/SLNA to undertake DPR for the project

-         SMC to undertake procurement process for selection of private sector operator

 

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:

-         SMC to undertake the project development process for procurement of private sector operator

-         The project would require prior environmental clearance from State Environment Impact Assessment Authority

 

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

-          

Additional Studies:

-         Feasibility study for selection of technology for treatment and viability of integrated waste management facility.

-         Preparation of Detailed Project report (DPR) Study for integrated waste management facility (SMC has appointed National Productivity Council for undertaking detailed feasibility study of Solid Waste Management)

-         Formation of policy measures for promotion of compost (in case composting is the preferred technology)

 

 


 

 

Project Title: Upgradation of Biomedical Treatment Facility

 

Project Description: SMC has established common biomedical treatment facility in Shimla with NORAD funding. The existing facility comprise of only incinerator and needs upgradation to provide whole range of treatment envisaged under Biomedical (Handling and Management) Rules. The proposed upgradation would include

-         Installation of autoclave, shredders, etc

-         Provision of pollution control equipments for incinerator

-         Construction of burial pits

 

Project Benefits:

-         Compliance with Biomedical (Handling and Management) Rules

 

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 50 Lakhs

 

Revenue Sources : Disposal charges from hospitals and clinics 

 

Implementation Structure : Project shall be implemented by SMC with O&M through private sector participation

 

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through grant and loan and/or Private Sector Operator; O&M Cost to be recovered by private operator from disposal charges payable by users to private operator

 

Time Frame:  Project Development : 2007; Implementation : March 2008

 

Institutional Responsibility: SMC and Private Operator

 

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:

 

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

-         Need to create awareness through awareness generation and commitment campaign to ensure effective implementation and long term sustenance of the initiative

-         Need to promote segregation of waste at source

 

Additional Studies:

-         Feasibility study for installation of rendering plant